Most large coal fired plants have a flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plant to lower SO2 levels to below emission limit levels. The CODEL GCEM 40 series is used to monitor SO2 levels after the FGD to ensure they are below required levels and to ensure that the process is not too efficient and using too much sorbent. In addition, many plants monitor pre and post the FGD to ascertain the efficiency of the plant.
While ordinary commercial styrene-based sulfonic acid resins may often be used for chemical reactions catalyzed by the H+ or M+ ions, faster process times, better yields, and higher product purity may be obtained by using a properly designed and purified catalyst. Purolite catalyst resins are supplied either completely water-swollen, or dried to specification.
Understanding of heat flow and thermal losses is inevitable during building design and engineering of energy-efficient floor heating systems. Thermal conductivity can be improved when for multilayer constructions materials are optimized.
Supervision and maintenance on those locations without internet wired connection requires high personnel cost and also means a slow reaction in case of malfunction events and alarms. For companies with a big amount of remote location centers (such as repeaters of operators and telephone companies, production and distribution centers for energy manufacturers or photovoltaic/eolic plants), maintenance and supervision labors involve disproportionately high costs.
Nowadays, the new laws of protection and sustainability, increased energy prices and greater environmental awareness and drive increased largely rational use of energy, not only for end users but also large consumers and systems thereby improving efficiency in buildings.