coal-to-liquid Articles

  • Coal-to-liquid fuels poised for a comeback

    Converting coal into liquid fuels is known to be more costly than current energy technologies, both in terms of production costs and the amount of greenhouse gases the process emits. Production of coal-to-liquid fuel, or CTL, has a large carbon footprint, releasing more than twice the lifecycle greenhouse gases of conventional petroleum fuels. However, with the rise in energy prices that began ...


    By GLOBE SERIES

  • Is `clean` coal possible?

    VANCOUVER, April 18, 2007 (GLOBE-Net) - Coal is the world’s most commonly used fuel to produce electrical energy, and will continue as such for some time. Yet it is one of the ’dirtiest’ of all fossil fuels. It is a major source of toxic air pollutants and the leading source of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Many believe ’clean coal’ technologies will improve the energy efficiency of ...


    By GLOBE SERIES

  • Composition, morphology, properties of coal fly ash microspheres and their application for conditioning liquid radioactive waste

    Using methods of the Mossbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermodynamic analysis of phase formation in silicate multi-component melts, the detailed study of composition, morphology, and properties of fly ash microspheres resulting from combustion of three coals (Irsha-Borodinskii, Kuznetskii and Ekibastuzskii) was carried out. About 60 microspherical products with an iron ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Underground Coal Gasification: Converting Unmineable Coal To Energy

    Currently, about 1.5 billion people –almost a quarter of the world’s population— are without electric power. The International Energy Agency estimates that world energy demand (for all forms of energy, including transportation fuels) will increase by 36 percent by 2035 and fossil fuels, such as coal, will continue to play a critical role in meeting this demand. What is ...

  • King Coal’s Climate Challenge

    Coal is emerging as a major topic of conversation at the United Nations climate-change negotiations currently taking place in Warsaw – and rightly so. Indeed, it is a discussion that the world needs to have. The latest findings of the ...

  • Inquiry Into Coal Seam Gas

    Poorly planned or managed coal seam gas (CSG) exploration or extraction activities pose considerable risks to both groundwater and surface water systems. Key water quality issues, from my own perspective, are listed below. Specific issues may be of greater or lesser significance for particular projects, but all of these issues should be thoroughly and transparently assessed for all proposed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Competing Coal Ash Proposals

    On May 4, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long-awaited proposal to manage coal ash – the byproduct of burning coal to generate power. The agency proposed two quite different approaches for regulating coal ash, somewhat to the consternation of critics, who had hoped for more stringent ...


    By Acta Group

  • Coal market outlook in China

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Planning the future of Botswana's coal

    Botswana has vast proven deposits of steam coal, which, for a long time, the government has wanted to develop but without much success. The main objectives of this study are: to forecast possible coal exports from Botswana and the land routes for these exports; to determine the competitiveness of Botswana's coal in world steam coal trade; to make recommendations on the appropriate policy for the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Inquiry into coal seam gas

    Poorly planned or managed coal seam gas (CSG) exploration or extraction activities pose considerable risks to both groundwater and surface water systems. Key water quality issues, from my own perspective, are listed below. Specific issues may be of greater or lesser significance for particular projects, but all of these issues should be thoroughly and transparently assessed for all proposed (or ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The alternative to coal in South Africa

    With a desperate need for dispatchable generation, South Africa should be readily embracing CSP as a low-carbon, sustainable, base load energy alternative. So why do its energy authorities remain unconvinced? This question has formed the subject of Part 2 of the CSP Today South Africa Guide. London, UK October 11 2011 Forget green energy: while most nations are concerned ...


    By FCBI Energy Ltd.

  • Low-emission coal burning technology

    Customer: Foster Wheeler Energy, Siemens, EnergoProjekt Katowice Challenge: One third of carbon dioxide emissions caused by humans come from the burning of fossil fuels in energy production. How to reduce them? Solution: Developing a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler where fossil fuels are combusted with pure oxygen separated from the air. ...

  • Coal-fired power on the way out?

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of a powerful movement opposing the construction of new coal-fired power plants in the United States. Initially led by environmental groups, both national and local, it has since been joined by prominent national political leaders and many state governors. The principal reason for opposing coal plants is that they are changing the earth’s climate. ...


    By Earth Policy Institute

  • Coal Mining – understanding your resource

    Geovista have just come back from India – what a beautiful country! Training and commissioning was completed for two full systems involved in the exploration and development of the country’s coal and mineral resources. Focus was provided on the operation, maintenance and running of the Geovista equipment with two trips completed to the field. A great success with great ...


    By GeoVista

  • The Great Transition – Closing Coal Plants

    We may wake up one morning in the not-too-distant future and realize that the world has reached a tipping point on coal. So concludes the Earth Policy Institute in Chapter 3 of its upcoming report entitled The Great Transition: Shifting from Fossil Fuels to Solar and Wind Energy. Use of this fuel will be declining worldwide, as ...


    By GLOBE SERIES

  • What is the future of King Coal in China?

    When it comes to coal consumption, no other nation comes close to China. The country reigns as the world’s largest coal user, burning almost half of the global total each year. About 70 percent of China’s total energy consumption and nearly 80 percent of its electricity production come ...

  • Review of coal as a promising source of lithium

    Coals are a major source of pollution in certain parts of the world due to mining, coal combustion, and disposal of fly ash. The recovery of valuable rare metals from coals or coal–processing byproducts is a promising way to utilise these traditional resources economically, efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way. Lithium, a highly interesting metal, has been found dispersed and even ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Coal company valuation, production and reserves

    The primary determinants of the value of a coal company are its cash flows and earnings, which is dependent upon the quantity and quality of the coal it produces and coal selling prices; future production potential, which is described by its reserves; and its inventory of capital assets, mining equipment, infrastructure, and acreage. The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Experience on coal reburn in a utility boiler

    Reburning is an in-furnace combustion modification technology for the reduction of NOx. By staging the introduction of the fuel, an environment is created where NOx generated by the combustion of the main fuel supply is subsequently consumed by the hydrocarbon radicals arising from the reburn fuel under reducing conditions. ENEL has retrofitted unit No. 4 of Vado ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Experimental studies on hydrophobic flocculation of coal fines in aqueous solutions and flotation of flocculated coal

    Hydrophobic flocculation of fine bituminous coal particles in aqueous solutions under mechanical conditioning and without any surfactants has been experimentally studied through the measurements of aggregative efficiency, zeta potential and contact angle in this work. The results have shown that the hydrophobic coal fines strongly aggregated in a wide pH range (3.5?9.5), even though the particle ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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