Keywords: energy use, fossil energy, household consumption, renewable energy sources
Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands
Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed and described. A comparison of these findings with objectives concerning ecological sustainability demonstrates that present-day household energy use is not sustainable. A scenario towards sustainable household energy use is designed containing far-reaching measures with regard to direct energy use. Scenario evaluation shows a substantial reduction of direct energy use; however, this is not enough to meet the sustainability objectives. Based on these results, the possibilities and the limitations are discussed to enable households to make their direct and indirect energy use sustainable on the long run.