Addendum to the “Life Cycle GHG Emission Study on the Use of LNG as Marine Fuel
thinkstep has prepared an addendum to the “Life Cycle GHG emission study on the use of LNG as Marine Fuel.” This addendum is intended to make our approach more transparent and comprehensible, clarifying some of the calculation methodology we used.
The “Life Cycle GHG emission study on the use of LNG as Marine Fuel” commissioned by SEA/LNG and SGMF has now been downloaded by more than 1,000 different individuals and organizations since April 2019. The report has been widely recognized as the most comprehensive analysis undertaken to date on the lifecycle GHG emissions of LNG as a marine fuel compared with current and post-2020 conventional marine fuels.
The analysis was based on the latest primary data from the main marine engine manufacturers, namely Caterpillar MaK, Caterpillar Solar Turbines, GE Aviation, MAN Energy Solutions, MTU Friedrichshafen, Winterthur Gas & Diesel and Wärtsilä. On the fuel supply chains, we supplemented data from our internationally recognized GaBi LCI databases with information from ExxonMobil, Shell and Total.
The study assessed the supply and use of LNG as a marine fuel according to ISO standards and was peer-reviewed by leading academics from key institutions in France, Germany, Japan and the USA.
In summary, the study has been well received and thinkstep has been keen to encourage discussion of the analysis. We have received feedback from a number of commentators, which we address in the addendum.
This feedback falls into three main categories:
- how our study allocated refinery GHG emissions to the different oil-based marine fuels,
- our assumptions on engine efficiencies and
- how we handled methane slip.