Water content, water sorption kinetics, and percent water uptake are all characteristics of interest to material scientists. Water sorption behavior plays an important role in the development and use of many common and advanced materials. Some examples include:
- Stability of pharmaceutical excipients and drug actives
- Drying and storage of grains
- Texture and shelf life of food products
- PEM fuel cell components
- Mortar, grout and other cementitious materials
- Paper and coatings
- Hydrophobic surface treatments
- Microporous and nanostructured carbons
Isotherms: Mass change as a function of changing relative humidity, increasing mass during adsorption (increasing RH%), decreasing mass during subsequent desorption (decreasing RH%).
Kinetics: time-dependent sorption studies give the rate of sorption.
Effect of Temperature: isotherms and kinetics change as a function of temperature. Can be used to yield sorption enthalpies.
- Deliquescence: certain salts exhibit the property of dissolving in self-adsorbed water.
- Equilbrium moisture content: quantitatively the amount of water associated (adsorbed/absorbed) with the material under given atmospheric conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (Organic materials may be subject to molding according to atmospheric humidity, for example).
- Hysteresis working range: adsorption and desorption usually differ by hysteresis - this gives a range of stability in which subsequent sorption cycles produce no change in equilibrium moisture content.
- Hydrophobicity/philicity: the shape of the isotherm reveals relative strength of affinity between water and the surface, due to polar or other chemical interactions.
- Micropore investigations: even hydrophobic materials can take up moisture if their pores are small enough.
- Crystallization phenomena: certain amorphous materials will undergo crystallization as a function of water sorption due to, for example, shifts in glass transition points.
- Sample form: sorption kinetics can be altered by the physical form of a material - powder, granule, pellet, tablet, monolith etc.
- Balance heads: 2(DVS-2, DVS-2HT), 1(DVS-1)
- Balances, type: ultrasensitive electronic microbalances
- Balance capacity(each): 5g
- Balance capacity(combined): 10g (DVS-2, DVS-2HT only)
- Dynamic weighing range(each): -500mg to +500mg, 0 to +1000mg
- Dynamic weighing range(combined): -1000mg to +1000mg, 0 to +2000mg (DVS-2, DVS-2HT only)
- Weighing resolution: 0.1µg
- RH range: <2% - 98% (depending on temperature)
- RH resolution: 0.1%
- RH accuracy : ± 0.8% RH at 25°C
- Sample chamber temperature range: <10 - 80°C (DVS-2), 10 - 85°C (DVS-2HT), 15-60°C (DVS-1)
- Sample chamber temperature stability: ± 0.1°C
- Balance head temperature : Up to 85°C (DVS-2) , 90°C (DVS-2HT), 75°C (DVS-1)
- Gas flow rates: 0 - 200 cm3/min (mass flow controllers)
- Viewing port / sample chamber door heated, triple-glazed
- Data acquisition rate: adjustable, up to 12 points per minute
- Sample pan material: silica
- Water reservoir capacity: 46 ml