ARGE-Kompost & Biogas Österreich

Biogas

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Biogas is an energy production in the cycle of nature  Nature always works in cycles, ie organic matter is degraded by microorganisms. The resulting products then serve as starting material for new life. Nature knows two operations for these circuits: If the decomposition of the organic material in the presence of air, it is called composting or composting. If the degradation of organic material under exclusion of air, it is called fermentation - the majority of the org. Mass energy content is converted into biogas. In this process is widespread in nature, for example in bogs, rather than on the bottom of lakes and in the manure pit.

Depending on the repetition is called marsh gas, biogas, sewage gas, mine gas, landfill gas, or in the field of anaerobic digestion of waste materials and / or renewable resources up of biogas. Ill.: energy production in the cycle of nature [JV compost and biogas Austria, 2007]

Is an energy production .... in the cycle of nature!
Nature always works in cycles, ie the young plant grows with the energy of the sun and the nutrients of the soil. After harvesting the plants the organic matter is degraded by microorganisms and in turn serves as the starting material for new life. Nature knows two operations for these circuits:

  • If the decomposition of the organic material in the presence of air, it is called composting or composting.
  • If the degradation of organic material under exclusion of air (= anaerobic), one speaks of fermentation - the majority of the org. Mass energy content is converted into biogas. In this process is widespread in nature, for example in bogs, rather than on the bottom of lakes and in the manure pit. Depending on the repetition is called marsh gas, biogas, sewage gas, mine gas, landfill gas, or just in the area of renewable resources of biogas.

To use the naturally occurring process of biogas production for energy, the fermentation of organic matter takes place in a dark, isolated and 'oxygen-free container,' the fermenter. The organic matter such as manure, manure, corn, grass, sunflower but also organic waste, food waste, animal waste, vegetable and fruit waste, etc. are some of the feedstocks.

This conversion is carried out by anaerobic fermentation of different groups of bacteria that perform individual steps of the reconstruction and depend on each other. This conversion of organic substances up to the biogas takes place in four phases. Liquefaction (hydrolysis), the acidification (acidogenesis), the formation of acetic acid (acetogenesis) and methane formation (methanogenesis) Since the biogas formed mainly consists of carbon compounds remain in the nutrients contained mostly raw materials in the liquid residue, the fermentation residue. The fermentation residue thus contains almost all the nutrients that are necessary for balanced plant nutrition and represents (eg grassland farming, gardening ...) hervorragdenden an organic fertilizer.

Core of a biogas plant fermenter is (fermenter). In which the materials supplied are broken down by bacteria and converted into biogas. As input material to the digester slurry is fed from livestock. To increase the gas yield, the fermentation process can further energetic materials such as corn, sunflower, grass or waste from the food industry, are added. The fermenter is fed several times a day. With each addition, a corresponding amount is finished displaced fermented material. It flows through an overflow in either the secondary fermentation tank or the fermentation residue in a storage warehouse. The fermenter always stays on the same level.


The biogas occurs, supported by the agitation of the fermentation substrate and is stored in a gas reservoir to the use. From there, the biogas comes usually in a combined heat and is burned to generate electricity. The generated electricity is fed into the public grid. The waste heat from the CHP plant is used to heat the digester, to heat buildings or other projects. In addition to the combustion of the biogas produced, but it is also possible to process the produced biogas to natural gas quality. Once this is done, the biogas can be used as a fuel and / or as a substitute for natural gas. The digested and fermented material is then applied to land as a valuable organic fertilizers. fig: input and output of a biogas plant.

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