One of the most widespread liquid electrical insulating materials is transformer oil. It is used to fill the pores in the fiber insulation and the space between the windings, thereby increasing the dielectric strength of the insulation and improving the heat removal from the windings and the core of a transformer.
Customers benefit from the extensive know-how that AERZEN has gained from decades of experience in the chemical and petrochemical industry. The use of biogas as an energy source will considerably help achieve the environmental objectives set nationally and internationally; be that reducing reliance on nuclear energy or the reduction of CO2 emissions.
Biogas is a natural gas also known as biofuel or biomass and is produced by breaking down organic material such as household waste, manure and crops grown specifically for biofuel with temperature-sensitive microbes and capturing the by-products.
The overall efficiency of thermal power generation (called “Carnot cycle”) inherently depends on the „cold-end” of the cycle, where the waste heat is dissipated by the heat sink: The cooling system of the power plant. This actually is the part of a power plant where ENEXIO supports its customers and partners with its rich product portfolio ranges from all dry air cooled condensers (ACC) and Heller Technologies® to all wet cooling towers and cooling tower components (fill media by...
Understanding of heat flow and thermal losses is inevitable during building design and engineering of energy-efficient floor heating systems. Thermal conductivity can be improved when for multilayer constructions materials are optimized.
Sun simulators are available in different classes indicating the performance characteristics by the combination of three letters (A,B or C) (according to IEC 60904, JIS 8912 and ASTM E 927-05). Each letter represents respectively the spectral match with the solar spectrum (1000 W/m2, AM 1.5), uniformity of the light field and temporary stability. Class AAA are considered as most accurate and have an ideal spectral match between 0.75 and 1.25, max. 2.0% non-uniformity and 0.5% nonstability according to the IEC...
Usually, the performance of a PV module is measured at the factory under the so-called Standard Test Conditions (STC), described in IEC 60904. This is a convenient test method that can be integrated in routine production procedures. However, the indoor measurement of the STC PV performance reveals the power production of the module at only one particular measurement condition.
Monitoring the stability of a sun simulator enables the researcher to improve the stability of the PV cell and precision of the I-V measurement. The sun simulator is for example used to test the produced PV solar panel and classify it according to the STC standardization.
While ordinary commercial styrene-based sulfonic acid resins may often be used for chemical reactions catalyzed by the H+ or M+ ions, faster process times, better yields, and higher product purity may be obtained by using a properly designed and purified catalyst. Purolite catalyst resins are supplied either completely water-swollen, or dried to specification.
PV performance measurements under real outdoor conditions are done in may different ways. However, the concept of all performance investigations is to relate the input energy, which is the solar radiative flux, to the output energy, which is the electrical power produced by the PV module. EKO’s Solar Monitoring Stations, referred to as SMS, is the dedicated facility for this type of evaluation.
The construction building wall makes the most significant contribution to the reduction of building energy consumption. The total thermal losses of building constructions strongly depends on the environmental conditions (Location) and building construction (Material). On site measurements are possible with EKO thin film heat flow sensors which can be integrated with building walls. Evaluation of heat flow and thermal losses is inevitable during building design and engineering of energy-efficient floor heating...